Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Cultural Activism and Culture Jamming Essay - 5153 Words

Cultural Activism and Culture Jamming Cultural activism is not quite the same as traditional political activism. Within the sphere of traditional activism, there are issues like war, nuclear power, abortion and standard organizational principals and consciousness-raising strategies. Cultural activism (and more specifically culture jamming), in many ways goes beyond traditional strategies that have typified political action concentrating on issues like distribution and the public nature of art. It even goes beyond traditional barriers, embracing illegal methods of obtaining their goals. Another aspect that characterizes cultural activism is a belief that traditional methods (demonstrations, pamphleting, etc.) have proven ineffective†¦show more content†¦This means that it is an activist culture that tries to look at the underlying forms of power which constricts culture and makes attempts at breaking through those controls. It also means putting the cultural at the service of political goals, this is where the te rms activist art or political art, media piracy (radio, print, TV, film, internet publishing), and hactivism all have a common denominator of cultural activism and culture jamming. All these practices contribute to the notion that there must be a place for independent modes of communication and that cultural expression should be controlled more democratically, outside of the confines of commercial enterprise. If art does work within the confines of dominate media, it should do so critically, with the intention of subverting its message. Adrienne Richs Notebooks and Nina Felshins But Is It Art? both discuss the intersection of art and politics. In Richs text, we get a great discussion aimed toward uncovering the fundamental links between art and politics. What does it mean to produce political art? She quotes Tolstoy, who surprisingly held political art in disdain. He says, It is one thing to understand something and express it logically, and quite another to assimilate it organically, reconstructing the whole system of ones feelings, and to find a new kind of artistic expression for this new entity. (46) This is to say that things that get the labelShow MoreRelatedAdbusters Media Foundation: An Active Space for Participation2476 Words   |  10 PagesAdbusters. Adbusters also challenges mainstream messages through a practice called culture jamming. By taking popular ads from the media Adbusters challenges corporations and mainstream media by interrupting the consumer experience by revealing the underlying message and meaning behind the ad. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Access Of Modern Energy Is A Combination Of Three...

Access to modern energy is a combination of three characteristics: availability, affordability and reliability (Reddy, 2015). We can also measure a percentage of the world population with access to affordable and reliable electricity sources (i) and the percentage of people who primarily rely on modern, non-solid fuels (ii) (Wykes et al., 2015). Combined, these two percentages are relevant indicators. The percentages of population per country with access to electricity (i) and modern non-solid fuels (ii) are currently being measured by The World Bank (The World Bank Database, 2015). In total, 1.2 billion people in the world have no access to electricity while 1 billion more have access only to unreliable services. Finally, nearly 3 billion people rely on solid fuels for everyday energy requirements (United Nations Foundation, 2013) 7.2 increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030 This target is measurable: it is the share of the world’s total energy consumption that comes from renewable energy. Moreover, tracking the percent change of that share from year to year will indicate whether it is increasing or not. However, the target should be rephrased because â€Å"substantially† is not something we can quantify. A clearer target could be set, by stating that said share should increase, for example, five-fold by 2030. 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Observing the Role of Homeostasis in the Body after Exercise Free Essays

Observing the role of homeostasis in the body after exercise Biology (T): Functioning Organisms Biology Practical Report 0383210 Mrs Woinarski Due 14th November 2012 Introduction: Homeostasis plays a vital role in the maintenance of a normal environment in which bodily systems are able to function most efficiently. The importance of homeostasis can be seen in blood pressure and pulse rate, as measurements which are not in the normal range can create serious health problems. Exercise has a known effect on both of these systems, as it results in a rise in body temperature and dilation of blood vessels, as well as an increase in breathing rate. We will write a custom essay sample on Observing the Role of Homeostasis in the Body after Exercise or any similar topic only for you Order Now By measuring how these rates return to normal levels after exercise demonstrates homeostasis in the body, and helps to describe the ways in which the endocrine system and organs involved impact this. Aim: To demonstrate the role of homeostasis in reaching normal levels for pulse rate and blood pressure after an increase due to exercise and investigate which of the relative feedback systems works faster to achieve homeostasis. Apparatus: Stopwatch 1. 5m Skipping Rope Electric blood pressure monitor Method: Using the electric blood pressure monitor, both blood pressure and pluse rate were measured at a resting level for the first participant. In an open area, participant was asked to skip 100 times using rope, without any break. Immediately afterwards, the stopwatch was set and the blood pressure and pulse rate of the participant were measured using the blood pressure monitor and recorded. Using the stopwatch to see time after exercise, blood pressure and pulse rates were measured again at t=1, t=5 and t=10, where t equals minutes after exercising. The entire process was completed on each participant individually. Results: Raw Data Table 1: Results for Participant 1 Time (t) |Pulse rate (bpm) |Blood pressure (mmHg) | |-1 |88 |105/67 | |0 |140 |135/119 | |1 |128 |138/69 | |5 |108 |113/63 | |10 |96 |109/66 | | Table 2: Results for Participant 2 Time (t) |Pulse rate (bpm) |Blood pressure (mmHg) | |-1 |90 |100/70 | |0 |150 |130/100 | |1 |120 |120/82 | |5 |100 |112/75 | |10 |93 |103/70 | | Table 3: Results for Participant 3 Time (t) |Pulse rate (bpm) |Blood pressure (mmHg) | |-1 |81 |112/68 | |0 |100 |120/93 | |1 |95 |117/90 | |5 |91 |113/81 | |10 |80 |110/69 | | Table 4: Results for Participant 4 Time (t) |Pulse rate (bpm) |Blood pressure (mmHg) | |-1 |92 |126/79 | |0 |92 |154/65 | |1 |92 |143/67 | |5 |92 |131/60 | |10 |92 |125/71 | | Table 5: Results for Participant 5 Time (t) |Pulse rate (bpm) |Blood pressure (mmHg) | |-1 |86 |80/55 | |0 |90 |85/67 | |1 |89 |85/67 | |5 |87 |83/68 | |10 |83 |79/53 | |Processed Data Discussion: The results of this experiment effectively demonstrate the role of homeostasis in returning both pulse rate and blood pressure to normal rates after exercising, as can be seen in the trends in the data provided. As seen in graphs 1, 2 and 3 the trend was a peak in both blood pressure and pulse rate immediately after exercise, followed by a slower decrease to normal levels. Pulse rate, as seen in graph 1, changed quite dramatically in participants 1 and 2 after exercise, and although this same peak is not so obvious in participants 3 and 5, they show a similar pattern. The difference in scale of change here could be affected by many uncontrollable variables, such as the participants’ fitness levels. However, by comparing each participant’s results to their resting levels, an accurate description can be made. Participant 4 is, in this case, an anomaly, as exercise did not have any effect on their pulse rate (Table 4). Graphs 2 and 3 show the participants’ change in blood pressure as a result of exercise, separated into systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements. Again, a peak can be seen immediately after exercise as blood is being forced throughout the body to supply nutrients to muscles which have just been used, shown in both systolic and diastolic rates. Blood pressure returns to normal through a homeostatic process after exercise, as a result in the changing size of blood vessels. After blood pressure had returned to normal, in the majority of participants, it then in fact continued to decrease slightly before creating a new resting level. This is a result of the dilation of blood vessels, which then move more easily through arteries. Conclusion: In conclusion, the process of homeostasis in returning to normal levels of blood pressure and pulse rate after exercise have effectively been demonstrated. The different speeds at which these homeostatic processes are completed are a result of the endocrine feedback systems involved. Sources of error in the experiment are the limited results obtained as a result of time constraints. For a more accurate outcome, more participants should be tested so that any anomalies can be disregarded, and each participant should be tested multiple times to obtain average results as a way to avoid any mechanical errors. As the same device was used to test the blood pressure and pulse rate of each participant, mechanical error was reduced, however multiple tests would have improved the results. Bibliography: ‘Homeostatic mechanisms’ 2012, WestAustralian Government, viewed 10 November at http://tle. westone. wa. gov. au/content/file/ea6e15c5-fe5e-78a3-fd79-83474fe5d808/1/hum_bio_Science_3a. zip/content/003_homeostasis/page_05. htm Hardy, Richard N. 1983, Homeostasis, 2nd ed, Edward Arnold, London ———————– [pic] [pic] [pic] How to cite Observing the Role of Homeostasis in the Body after Exercise, Essay examples

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The Granddaddy Of Total Quality Management(TQM) Essay Example For Students

The Granddaddy Of Total Quality Management(TQM): Essay Dr. W. Edwards Deming was known as the ?Granddaddy of total-quality-management. Total Quality Management (TQM) can provide organizations with the incentive for positive change, stirring the workforce and creating an environment that gives a company the competitive edge. To succeed, however, TQM has to be more than a catchword. If it is looked upon as a nuisance or an excuse for employees to take advantage of the employer, it wont work. TQM must become a way of corporate life. That has been the goal of Deming for over forty years. W. Edwards Deming organized a worldwide consulting practice for many years.. His clients included manufacturing companies, telephone companies, railways, carriers of motor freight, consumer researchers, census methodologists, hospitals, legal firms, government agencies, and research organizations in universities and in industry. The impact of Dr. Demings teachings on American manufacturing and service organizations has been profound. He started changes with his TQM ideas that are improving the human resources departments around the United States. President Reagan even awarded the National Medal of Technology to Dr. Deming in 1987. He received the Distinguished Career in Science award from the National Academy of Sciences in 1988. We will write a custom essay on The Granddaddy Of Total Quality Management(TQM): specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Dr. Deming received many other awards, including the Shewhart Medal from the American Society for Quality Control in 1956 and the Samuel S. Wilks Award from the American Statistical Association in 1983. The American Statistical Association established the annual Deming Prize for improvement of quality and productivityin 1980. Dr. Deming was a member of the International Statistical Institute. He was elected in 1983 to the National Academy of Engineering, and in 1986 to the Science and Technology Hall of Fame in Dayton. He was also inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1991. Dr. Demings numerous awards were well deserved. His education has lasted throughout his life beginning with his doctorate in mathematical physics from Yale University in 1928, in addition, he has earned honor degrees from the University of Wyoming, Rivier College, the University of Maryland, Ohio State University, Clarkson College of Technology, Miami University, George Washington University, the University of Colorado, Fordham University, the University of Alabama, Oregon State University, the American University, the University of South Carolina, Yale University, Harvard University, Cleary College, and Shenandoah University. Yale University also awarded him the Wilbur Lucius Cross Medal. And Rivier College awarded to him the Madeleine of Jesus Award. A multiple of books, films, and videotapes outline his life, his theory, and the practice of his methods worldwide. Of his books, Out of Crisis and The New Economics have even been translated into many foreign languages. Dr. Deming is well known for his work in Japan, where from 1950 forward he taught top management and engineers methods for management of quality. This training helped change the economy of Japan. In recognition of his contributions, the Union of Japanese Science and Engineering (JUSE) instituted the annual Deming Prizes for achievements in quality and dependability of product, and as a result, the Emperor of Japan awarded the Second Order Medal of the Sacred Treasure to Dr. Deming in 1990. In Out of Crisis, Dr. Deming outlines his fourteen points for management. He understood that a manager of people needs to understand that all people are different. Not rank people but understand that the performance of anyone is governed largely by the area that he works in, and is the responsibility of management. Below we can see what Dr. Deming taught in his style of management. Demings 14 Points of Management:1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs. .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 , .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 .postImageUrl , .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 , .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63:hover , .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63:visited , .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63:active { border:0!important; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63:active , .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63 .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub6d81f2efb487d179115619866dcab63:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Mother Teresa (1659 words) Essay2. Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to the challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change. 3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place. 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust. 5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs. 6. Institute training on the job. 7. Institute leadership. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul as well as supervision of production workers. 8. Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company. 9. Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service. 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the work force. 11. a. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership. b. Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership. 12. a. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. b. Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride of workmanship. This means, inter alia, abolishment of the annual merit rating and of management by objective. 13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement. 14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybodys job. If a company works hard to implement Dr. Demings ideas on management, they are likely to see an improvement in their all around environment. Training employees in order to fill a position skillfully and efficiently, benchmarking to identify areas that need improvement, and rethinking their approach to performance appraisal, are all indications of total-quality management that can result in a successful enterprise for all those involved. Works Cited:Deming, W. Edwards. Out of the Crisis. Cambridge: MIT/CAES. 1986Deming, W. Edwards. The New Economics, second edition. Cambridge:MIT/CAES. 1994Sherman, Arthur, George Bohlander, and Scott Snell. Managing HumanResources. Cincinnati: South-Western College. 1998

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

How US Territories, Like Puerto Rico, Obtain Statehood

How US Territories, Like Puerto Rico, Obtain Statehood The process by which U.S. territories attain full statehood is, at best, an inexact art. While Article IV, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution empowers the U.S. Congress to grant statehood, the process for doing so is not specified. Key Takeaways: U.S. Statehood Process The U.S. Constitution gives Congress the power to grant statehood but does not establish the process for doing so. Congress is free to determine the conditions of statehood on a case-by-case basis.According to the Constitution, a new state cannot be created by splitting or merging existing states unless both the U.S. Congress and the legislatures of the states involved approve.In most past cases, Congress has required that the people of the territory seeking statehood vote in a free referendum election, then petition the U.S. government for statehood. The Constitution merely declares that new states cannot be created by merging or splitting existing states without the approval of both the U.S. Congress and the states legislatures. Otherwise, Congress is given the authority to determine the conditions for statehood. The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States†¦ - U.S. Constitution, Article IV, Section 3, clause 2. Congress typically requires the territory applying for statehood to have a certain minimum population. In addition, Congress requires the territory to provide evidence that a majority of its residents favor statehood. However, Congress is under no constitutional obligation to grant statehood, even in those territories whose population expresses a desire for statehood. The Typical Process Historically, Congress has applied the following general procedure when granting territories statehood: The territory holds a referendum vote to determine the peoples desire for or against statehood.Should a majority vote to seek statehood, the territory petitions the U.S. Congress for statehood.The territory, if it has not already done so, is required to adopt a form of government and constitution that are in compliance with the U.S. Constitution.The U.S. Congress - both House and Senate - pass, by a simple majority vote, a joint resolution accepting the territory as a state.The President of the United States signs the joint resolution and the territory is acknowledged as a U.S. state. The process attaining statehood can literally take decades. For example, consider the case of Puerto Rico and its attempt to become the 51st state. The Puerto Rico Statehood Process Puerto Rico became a United States territory in 1898 and people born in Puerto Rico have automatically been granted full U.S. citizenship since 1917 by an act of Congress. In 1950, the U.S. Congress authorized Puerto Rico to draft a local constitution. In 1951, a constitutional convention was held in Puerto Rico to draft the constitution.In 1952, Puerto Rico ratified its territorial constitution establishing a republican form of government, which was approved by the U.S. Congress as being â€Å"not repugnant† to the U.S. Constitution and the functional equivalent of a valid state constitution. Then things like the Cold War, Vietnam, September 11, 2001, the Wars on Terror, the great recession and lots of politics put Puerto Rico’s statehood petition on Congress’ back burner for over 60 years.   On November 6, 2012, the territorial government of Puerto Rico held a two-question public referendum vote on petitioning for U.S. statehood. The first question asked voters if Puerto Rico should continue to be a U.S. territory. The second question asked voters to choose from among the three possible alternatives to territorial status - statehood, independence, and nationhood in free association with the United States. In the vote count, 61% of the voters chose statehood, while only 54% voted to retain territorial status.In August 2013, a U.S. Senate committee heard testimony on Puerto Rico’s 2012 statehood referendum vote and acknowledged that the majority of the Puerto Rican people had â€Å"expressed their opposition to continuing the current territorial status.†On February 4, 2015, Puerto Rico’s Resident Commissioner in the U.S. House of Representatives Pedro Pierluisi, introduced the Puerto Rico Statehood Admission Process Act (H.R. 727). The bill authorizes Puerto Rico’s State Elections Commission to hold a vote on Puerto Ricos admission into the Union as a state within one year after the Acts enactment. If a majority of the votes cast are for Puerto Ricos admission as a state, the bill requires the president of the United States to issue a proclamation to begin the transition process that will result in Puerto Ricos admission as a state effective January 1, 2021. On June 11, 2017, the people of Puerto Rico voted for U.S. statehood in a nonbinding referendum. Preliminary results showed that almost 500,000 ballots were cast for statehood, more than 7,600 for free association-independence, and almost 6,700 for retaining the current territorial status. Only about 23% of the island’s approximately 2.26 million registered voters cast ballots, leading to statehood opponents to doubt the validity of the result. Puerto Rico’s governor will now select two senators and five representatives to go to Washington, D.C., to ask the U.S. Congress to grant the territory statehood.  Despite the size of the vote in favor of statehood, the extremely low voter turnout may lessen the likelihood that Congress will grant the request.Note: While Puerto Rico’s resident commissioners to the House are allowed to introduce legislation and take part in debates and committee hearings, they are not allowed to actually vote on legislation. Similarly, no n-voting resident commissioners from the other U.S territories of American Samoa, the District of Columbia (a federal district), Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands also serve in the House. So if the U.S. legislative process eventually smiles on the Puerto Rico Statehood Admission Process Act, the entire process of transition from U.S. territory to U.S. state will have taken the Puerto Rican people over 71 years.   While some territories have significantly delayed petitioning for statehood, including Alaska (92 years) and Oklahoma (104 years), no valid petition for statehood has ever been denied by the U.S. Congress. Powers and Duties of All US States Once a territory has been granted statehood, it has all the rights, powers and duties established by the U.S. Constitution. The new state is required to elect delegates to the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate.The new state has the right to adopt a state constitution.The new state is required to form legislative, executive, and state judicial branches as necessary to effectively govern the state.The new state is granted all of those governmental powers not reserved to the federal government under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Five reasons to ignore your grammar gremlins (for now) - Emphasis

Five reasons to ignore your grammar gremlins (for now) Five reasons to ignore your grammar gremlins (for now) Heres the good news: if you’re worried your documents are not as good as they could be, your grammar is probably not the problem. Dont get me wrong. Grammar matters. Of course it does. Getting it wrong can undermine your reputation (though probably not as much as you think – see below). Poor grammar can even completely change the meaning of a sentence. But focusing too much on it could actually be more damaging. Here are five reasons why you should get over your grammar hang-ups. 1. Poor punctuation matters more than grammar.  Colons and commas are vital sign-posts, so it’s important to put them in the right place. And a misplaced apostrophe (or, worse, a missing one) will make it look like you don’t care. On the other hand, I’d argue that no-one is going to get that worked up about whether you end a sentence with a preposition. 2. Grammar (and punctuation) issues usually indicate deeper problems. It’s probably not your imperfect understanding of a set of arcane grammar rules known only by master pedants that’s holding back your writing. It’s far more likely to be structural issues or focusing too much on your own aims rather than your readers’. In fact, worrying too much about your grammar can actually cause deeper problems. That’s because it seriously undermines your confidence, causing you to compensate with overly complex language or sentences. 3. Almost everyone struggles with it. Believe it or not, FTSE 100 directors and new graduates are often united in uncertainty over certain grammar points. Even experienced editors can spend a lifetime picking up the finer details. So waiting until you’ve perfected your grammar knowledge before you write anything is counter-productive – and futile. 4. Perfect grammar does not automatically mean perfect documents. Perfecting your knowledge of grammar will not automatically make you produce good documents, any more than memorising the workshop manual to your shiny new Ford or Volvo will make you a good driver. It’s perfectly possible to be technically perfect yet still produce an impenetrable tome stuffed with turgid professionalese. Focus on your readers’ needs, structure your document well and use the right level of language. Then you stand a very good chance of making a real impact – yes, even if you’ve misplaced a modifier or left a participle dangling helplessly. 5. It’s not too late to fill in the gaps. If English is your first language, you already know 95 per cent of the grammar you’ll ever need. (And if it’s not, take comfort from the fact that your knowledge of technical grammar rules is probably superior to that of most native English speakers, simply because we learn our first language through usage rather than studying grammar.) Native speakers beyond the age of four or five already know which common verbs are irregular. They’d never say, for example, ‘I digged a big hole in the sand’. They know that ‘dig’ becomes ‘dug’ in the past tense. They just don’t know that it’s called the past tense. (Nor, at that age, do they need to.) So the task of filling in the gaps is pretty straightforward. The odds are that the things you’re unsure about are the same ones that other people struggle with. (See point 3, above.) So, take heart. Focus first on what your reader needs to know, then tell them in as straightforward a way as possible. Then – and only then – look up any points of grammar you’re not sure about.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Business models group project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Business models group project - Essay Example This argument indicates that electronic commerce emerged a long time ago, but it was known to only few industries. This also means that electronic commerce has spread around the world in recent times because of the development of the internet through the World Wide Web (Funk 10). Therefore, organizations should embrace the internet because it is the most significant platform that enables them to conduct business electronically between themselves and consumers and also between them and other businesses. According to the author, the development of the internet enabled electronic commerce to grow by 1000% annually in the years between 1996 and 1997 (Timmers 1). This growth rate is so huge and it indicates that the internet has had a massive effect on the ways in which organizations conduct their businesses. The article also argues that the research that was conducted by Data monitor in 1997 indicated that by the year 2002, around 630,000 organizations in the United States and other 245,000 in the European Union would be conducting all of their functions electronically (Timmers 1). This means that if these statistics were expected to take effect in 2000, in the current times, the organizations that conduct business electronically exceed this number both in the United States and in the European Union. The author has, however, not indicated the statistics for other parts of the world such as Asia, Africa, and Australia. These regions also have organizations that conduct their functions online, and it means that the author did not research on them efficiently. In this section of the article, the author classifies various business models into groups. Timmers begins this section by defining a business model as a design of the flow of services and products in an organization (2). The design also explains the roles of the actors who take part in the flow of the goods and services. According to the author, the